About Ovarian Cancer
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This will help to give you a better understanding of the disease. Remember, if you want to know more or you have further questions, note them down and speak to your medical professional.
Ovarian cancer begins in the ovaries.
The ovaries are two small organs that form part of a woman’s reproductive system. There’s an ovary on either side of the body and they are found in the lower part of the abdomen (beneath the stomach). You can see them in this diagram.
The ovaries produce eggs and also secrete the female hormones, oestrogen and progesterone.
Ovarian cancer occurs when some of the cells in the ovary change and begin to grow in an uncontrolled way forming a tumour.
There are three main types of ovarian cancer:
- Epithelial carcinoma: this cancer is found in the cells that cover the surface of the ovary (the epithelium). This is the most common form of ovarian cancer.
- Germ cell carcinoma: this is an uncommon form of ovarian cancer in which the tumour starts in the egg-producing cells of the ovary.
- Sex-cord stromal cell tumours: this is a rare type of ovarian cancer in which the tumour forms in the stromal cells of the ovary.
Ovarian cancer affects women and is more common in those over the age of 45. It’s very rare in younger women. Around 240 New Zealand women are diagnosed with ovarian cancer every year.1
The causes of ovarian cancer are still not completely understood, but we do know that risk increases:
- As you get older
- If you have a family history of the disease
- If you are obese
- If you have had few pregnancies or never been pregnant.
These are general risk factors only and they do not necessarily mean that you will have ovarian cancer. Check with your doctor if you have any concerns.